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即画出道中山道中景,直至追求探寻墨道山水(画家自定名)的艺术新形式

时间:2019-12-23 19:05

  三、超越绘画的渐进层次

  1.An Analytic Inheritor of Traditional Chinese Ink Painting

  通观姬子的艺术历程及其作品,其笔墨山水所追求的境界与当时的钱松岩、宋文治诸家属于同一范畴,其冰雪山水的独创,抓住了经典山水画在表现雪山冰封方面的薄弱点,创出了如雪麻皴、雪劈皴、雪坡皴、雪窝皴等独特的技法。但这两个类型的作品,是其进一步探索墨道山水的坚实基础。由于其墨道山水不仅延用了笔墨山水,尤其是冰雪山水的表现技法,融有独特造型的内在因素,承接了冰雪山水重在表现肺腑情怀的心源优势,而且通过思维的拓展,画面构成的重组变形,追求超越表像再现。

  一、有分析地继承中国水墨画的传统

Ink Paintings: Existence and Transcendence

  通观姬子的艺术历程,其于中国古典绘画传统的继承关系是:首先选择了雄奇豪放的格调,接着便是发扬传统绘画的理性因素,吸取了表现诗化境界,追求抒怀表现,崇尚碑学书法生拙老辣的笔墨趣味,最后是弘扬发展传统绘画的澄怀观道、以画体道的精神内涵,终于探索出独具面貌的墨道山水。常言道,批判地继承传统,取其精华,去其糟粕;如何取舍,则因人而异。姬子以自己的文化哲学思考和不懈的探索实践,具体地表达了他对这一取舍的个性特征。这一取舍的文化价值取向决定了他艺术精神的理性趋向与超越性本质,同时也为如何继承传统提供了一个独具特色的参考示例。

  At this time, Jizi changed his studio name to The Determined Studio, and continued his profound exploration. These explorations finalized in the experimental paintings that became the artistic expression known as the Tao of Ink Landscapes. The dictum for Jizis The Not Easy Studio was: It is not easy for those who know the difficulties, but there are many who, because they know the difficulties, lower their expectations. It is thus especially not easy to know the difficulties but still not lower ones expectations. Thus for one who does not lower his expectations but instead makes them definite, then such a person is really noble, and this nobility represented that profound spiritual essence necessary to advance Jizis art.

  姬子先生经过几十年的艺术实践,造就了自己独立思考、入微剖析的学者型气质。从其切身的体悟中,敏锐地抓住澄怀观道、以画体道这一超越性的精神,遵循以追光摄影之笔,写通天尽人之怀的宗旨,不懈地追求探索,为其探索墨道山水这一艺术形态奠定了与传统精神一脉相承的内在思想基础。

  姬子先生总结自己的艺术历程,把自己的创作分为三个递进性类型:延续型,再生型,开拓型。所谓延续型指的是在继承传统的基础上,通过深入生活进行写生,同时参照某些当代有成就的画家的作品,深入领会,逐步探索形成个人的笔墨风格。用一句常说的话概括便是继承传统而不囿于传统,深入生活融各家之长,形成自己的风格面貌。在这一层次所追求的是以自己的笔墨技法表现真山真水,即眼中山,眼中景,属胸有丘壑的范畴,其基本精神是现实主义的。所谓再生型指的是以自我情怀为主体,创造出超于现实实景的表现意境。为实现这一目标,必须在技法上突破前人,进行别开生面的探索创造。这一层次的创作精神是发我之肺腑,揭我之须眉,纵使笔不笔,墨不墨自有我在。追求的不是纯客观的再现而是要画出心中山,心中景是一种创境,属心有丘壑的范畴,所以个性就特别鲜明,其基本精神是浪漫主义的,同时与表现主义有某些相近之处,但仍没有超出常规理性绘画的范畴。所谓开拓型指的是要从立意上超越表像界,向本体界升华,创造出超于象外,得其环中表现宇宙大道精神,集具象,抽象,意象,心象为一体的,音乐般效果的宏观悟境。为实现这一目标,就需要从思维到构架,从技法到表现等方面进行全方位的开拓创造。这一层次的创作精神是澄怀观道澄怀味象,以道论画,以画体道,缘道求法,缘道立象。追求的是超越表像山水形迹,实现道境的物化,即画出道中山道中景。

--A Review of Jizis Art

  由于中国绘画理论并不是以绘画能力的高低来界定作品的品次,而是以作品所达到的精神内涵境界之高低品评作品的品次,因此,境界说乃是中国艺术所特有的理论。宗白华先生论述中国画境界时曾说:中国艺术家何以不满足于纯客观的机械式模写?因为艺术意境不是一个单层的平面的自然的再现,而是一个境界层深的创造。从直观感相的模写,活跃生命的传达,到最高灵境的启示,可以有三层次。(《直观艺术境界之诞生》)

  如所周知,中国山水画从东晋时创始,经过唐代到宋代已基本确立了文人画审美的主流倾向,发展到元明两代,逐步形成了一整套文人绘画的规范。早在唐代便产生了评画的神、妙、能、逸四格说,到宋代黄休复便把这四格进行了重新排列,以不拘常法的逸格为最高,并解释说:画之逸格,最难其俦,拙规矩于方圆,鄙精研于彩绘,笔简而形具,得之自然,莫可楷模,出于意表,故目之曰逸格尔。对逸格的推崇说明文人画审美趣味基本确立。否定丹青五彩崇尚朴素淡雅;否定刻意求似,崇尚得意忘象;否定世情描绘,崇尚诗意抒怀;否定工细刻画,崇尚书法笔意;加上题款印鉴,逐步形成了重在抒怀表现,创造诗化意境,追求笔墨韵味,集诗书画印为一体的文人画模式。由倪云林的简淡到徐青藤的泼洒,唐及北宋时代的恢宏气势逐渐淡化了,本来发展不充分的写实造型法则一步步地失去了深化发展的条件,这就决定了中国文人画传统理性精神不足的缺陷。其更甚者是自赵孟俯提出作画贵有古意,若无古意,虽工无益的说法来,还导致了文人画崇古的风气。董其昌名曰读万卷书,行万里路实则是读万卷画,到清初四王,更是以仿古为高,这就使文人画进一步远离了自然,走向了末路。从而导致石涛大倡面向自然,搜尽奇峰思想的出现,使中国画界为之一震。

  3. Progressive Levels of Transcendental Paintings

  In the Tang Dynasty, Zhang Yanyuan (mid ninth century) said this about using the brush for calligraphy and painting: Conserve the spirit, concentrate on what is unique, use appropriate skills, and make use of (the Tang Dynasty painter) Wu Shengs brush methods. All techniques that reach the sublime follow this method. Why stop (at the painter wielding the brush), the (ancient) butcher Bao Ding wielding his knife and the Master Carpenter wielding his carpenters square even achieved this sublimity. During the Qing Dynasty, Shi Tao, in his book Quotations on Art, explained in detail his thoughts on Putting passion into the brush and ink, and availing yourself of mountains and streams to represent the Tao. Shi Tao used his uniqueness theory of painting to develop a thesis that he later summarized by saying: The artist responsible for art, who manages to create life from chaos, who uses his artistic uniqueness to bring order to the myriad of things, and the myriad of things to express that uniqueness, such an artist is not responsible for painting mountains, waters, for wielding brush and ink, for old and new art, or for the sages; no, that artist is responsible solely for his artistic creativity. In his book On the Art of Painting, Shi Tao pointed out that: The uniqueness of painting has no other ultimate than the Tao of Heaven and Earth. Shi Taos discussions on painting fully embodied the concept of using art to intuit the Tao, and they became the classic summary of the spirit and essence of traditional literati paintings.

  In a comprehensive view of the course of his art and his artworks, we see that the artistic realm that Jizi was seeking in his brush and ink landscapes belonged to the same category as the works of the contemporary artists Qian Songyan and Song Wenzhi (mentioned above). The originality of Jizis snow and ice landscapes is that he understood the weak points of classical landscape painting in displaying snowy mountains and frozen peaks, and hence created such special techniques as the rough, choppy, slanting, and hollow brush methods for showing the textures of snow and ice. These two kinds of artworks, Jizis brush and ink landscapes and his snow and ice landscapes, however, formed a solid foundation for Jizi to proceed to explore his Tao of Ink Landscapes. Because his Tao of Ink Landscapes were not just an extension of his brush and ink landscapes, but in particular were the expressive techniques he used in the snow and ice landscapes, they incorporated inner elements that made for unique modeling, and captured the snow and ice landscapes emphasis on expressing the artists heartfelt sentiments. By means of expanding his thinking and restructuring and modifying the configuration of the paintings, moreover, Jizi sought to reproduce a painting that surpassed merely showing an image.

  姬子先生从五十年代末,开始在中国山水画这片沃土上辛勤耕耘,迄今已五十多个春秋,经过学习传统自成风格,探索冰雪山水新技法,直至追求探寻墨道山水(画家自定名)的艺术新形式,努力寻求山水画的表现空间,以求升华山水画的表现境界。

--A Review of Jizis Art(three )

  Translator: E. F. Connelly, PhD

  姬子先生几十年如一日锲而不舍地探索,早年他曾把自己的一角天地命名为苦兰斋枯寒吟馆可见其起步的艰难。正是在这苦与寒的境遇中他刻苦地学习前人,打下了坚实的传统基础。从六十年代末开始探索自己的笔墨风格,白天工作,夜晚则要静下心来钻研艺术,困难重重,艰难不易。七十年代初他从切身的体验出发,把自己的一角天地命名为不易斋,正是在这艰难不易的环境中,他探索形成了自己风格的笔墨山水,继而又创造出了表现北国冰封雪飘,凛冽悲壮的燕山冰雪山水。八十年代末随着商潮的冲击,很多搞艺术的纷纷下海,他却遵循着致虚极,守静笃的古训,把自己的一角天地更名为定斋,继续进行深入探索,终于试验出墨道山水这一艺术表现形式。知不易者不易也,知不易而易其志者多矣,知不易而不易其志者尤不易也。这是其《不易斋记》中的警句,然而不易其志而能定者,几近于崇高。这正表现出姬子艺术升华必依的深层精神本质。

  As the saying goes, one who criticizes the inherited tradition has to capture its essence while discarding its dregs, but how to capture and discard differs for each individual. In Jizis case, he used his own thoughts on culture and philosophy and his unremitting exploration and practice to convey specifically his own personal ideas about what should be captured and what should be discarded. The cultural value of what Jizi captured and discarded, aligned with and decided for the rational trend and transcendent essence of his artistic spirit, while at the same time, it provided a unique and special reference to answer the question of how best to inherit traditional art.

  In summarizing his own artistic process, Mr. Jizi divided his creativity into three progressive genres: continuation, rebirth, and pioneering. By the continuation genre, Jizi means that, on the basis of continuing traditional painting, and by means of deeply investigating life in order to make progress in sketching, while at the same time consulting the works of contemporary artists of merit, he obtained a profound understanding of painting, and gradually formed his own brush and ink style. Using a familiar adage to sum this up, we can say that Jizi: continued the traditional but was not confined by tradition, deeply investigated life to blend the strong points of different artists, and so formed his own style. What Jizi was seeking in this genre was to use his own skills with brush and ink to express real mountains and real streams, that is the mountains and the scenes that one sees with ones eyes. These belong to the category of scenery that one already sees physically and emotionally, and the basic spirit is Realism.

  From the end of the 1950s, Mr. Jizi began to cultivate assiduously the fertile field of Chinas landscape art. For what has now been more than fifty years, Mr. Jizi studied traditional landscape art to achieve his own style. He explored a new technique for painting landscapes that produced his snow and ice landscapes, and then began pursuing and exploring a new artistic form that the artist himself calls the Tao of Ink Landscapes, an artistic form that strives to find ways to express space in landscape paintings that refine the realms of expression in landscape paintings.

  By the pioneering genre, Jizi means that conceptually he wanted to go beyond the physical realm that simply shows images, and advance to the metaphysical realm. In this genre, the artist wants his creations to express the universal spirit of the Tao that is beyond the image, but obtained from what the Tao encompasses. To accomplish this, the artist collects all the images - the abstract, the concrete, and the mental - and gives them a macro realization that has a unified, music like effect. In order to obtain this goal, the artist must proceed with a full range of exploration and creation from thought to framework, from technique to expression, and other such aspects of painting. The creative spirit in this genre is described variously as: a pure mind glimpsing the Tao, a pure mind getting the sense of an object, using the Tao to discuss art, and using art to embody the Tao; and seeking method and image from the Tao. What the artist is seeking in this genre is to transcend just showing the features of mountains and streams in order to realize the materialization of the realm of Tao, that is to paint mountains and scenes in the Tao.

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  Due to the fact that the theory of Chinese painting most definitely does not take the ability to paint as the measure of a paintings value, but rather evaluates a painting by the level of its spiritual meaning, so for this reason the theory of realms, that is the realm a painting attains, is a special feature of Chinese art theory. The contemporary artist and critic Mr. Zong Baihua (1897-1986), when discussing realms in Chinese painting, has said: Why are Chinese artists not satisfied with purely objective, mechanical drawings? Because the realm of Chinese painting is not a single plane of natural reproduction but rather the creation of realms of painting, with each realm having a deeper level. In all, there are three levels: the drawing of an object as directly perceived through the visual sense; the conveying of the dynamism of life; and the revealing of the highest spiritual realm. (Zong Baihua The Birth of Realms in the Visual Arts)

  This admiration for the unaffected category clearly shows that the literati painting aesthetic had become established. This aesthetic negates brightness and colors, advocating instead simplicity and elegance, and it also negates deliberately seeking to make the painting similar to its subject, advocating instead obtaining the essence and forgetting the image. This aesthetic negates the depiction of worldly relationships, advocating instead a poetic lyricism, and it negates meticulous portraiture, advocating instead a calligraphic brush style. Painters added seal inscriptions, and they gradually emphasized displaying lyricism, creating a poetic mood, and seeking after the appeal of brush and ink.

  For several decades Mr. Jizi persevered in his explorations. In the early years, he called his own little corner of the world such names as The Bitter Blue Studio, and The Studio for Chanting in the Withering Cold, and hence we realize just how difficult it was for him in the beginning. It was just in this bitter cold period that he assiduously studied previous artists, establishing a solid foundation in traditional painting. From the end of the 1960s, he began to explore his own style. He worked during the day while at night he calmed his mind in order to delve into art, but it was a difficult time nonetheless. At the beginning of the 1970s, he started from personal experience and called his corner of the world The Not Easy Studio. It was just in these difficult circumstances that his explorations took shape as ink and brush landscapes painted in his own style. He continued his own style creating his manifestations of the frozen ice and fluttering snows of the North Country, the biting cold and tragic majesty of the Yan Mountain ice and snow landscapes. At the end of the 1980s, following the impact of the rise of business in China, one by one artists began to engage in business, but Jizi continued to abide by the ancient Taoist precepts of extreme emptiness and guarded quietude (i.e. remaining unperturbed by what others do and concentrating instead on quietly honing a skill).

  In his early years, Mr. Jizi strived to study and learn the many aspects of traditional landscape painting. In one respect, he is the inheritor of the good points of traditional literati painting: not only did he earnestly study the verdant greens of the brush and ink technique of the Dong Yuan (died 962) and Ju Ran (907-960) Southern School of landscape painting, intuiting the expression of a poeticized artistic mood, but also he strove to learn calligraphy and seal carving as well. In another respect, because of a personality preference, Jizi was partial to the great patterns and the imposing manner of the Northern Sung panoramic landscapes, and even more fond of the dense and vast styles of the Song Dynasty painter Huang Gongwang (1269-1354) and the Yuan Dynasty painter Wang Meng (1308-1385). Jizi did not advocate hasty, unaffected brush work or impromptu brush splashes, and he most certainly did not advocate painting a few slipshod brush strokes that inscribe the whole piece with written characters; and this was no doubt the initial germination of a fine sense of awareness of artistic independence. After five or six years of hard work, in 1964, Jizi painted the Tang poet Meng Haoran (691-740) in a painting titled Meng Haoran Passing an Old Friends Village. This painting prominently displayed the features of traditional landscape painting that Jizi, as its inheritor, had both discarded and retained, and also displayed his solid grounding in the skills of traditional landscape painting.

  By the rebirth genre, Jizi means using principally his own sentiments in order to create an expressive realm that surpasses Realism. In order to achieve this goal, Jizi had to break through the techniques of previous artists, and proceed to explore and create the breaking of new artistic ground. His creative spirit in this genre was, in the words of Shi Tao: from the depths of my heart, using my own abilities, I will decide how to use the brush and how to apply the ink. What Jizi was seeking in this genre was not a pure, objective reproduction but rather the ability to paint a creative realm of the mountains and scenes in ones mind that belong to the category known as having ones mind set in a profound artistic mood. In this genre, the artists individuality is particularly distinctive and the basic spirit is Romanticism. While this genre is close in several aspects to Expressionism, it still remains in the category of conventional, rational painting.

  Mr. Jizis artworks are primarily ink and brush landscapes that not only seek to create novel forms but also strive to achieve a transcendent realm that induces deep contemplation.

  It is well known that Chinas traditional landscape painting started in the eastern Jin Dynasty (317-420). From the Tang (618-907) to the Song (960-1279) Dynasties, traditional landscape painting had established itself as primarily a literati painting aesthetic. As it developed during the Yuan (1271-1368) and Ming (1368-1644) Dynasties, traditional landscape painting gradually became a complete set of literati painting norms. Early in the Tang Dynasty, the literati assessed paintings via the four categories of spirited (shen), subtle (miao), competent (neng), and unaffected (yi) (i.e. without artificiality). During the Song Dynasty, the Northern Song scholar and art historian, Huang Xiufu, rearranged these four categories making the unaffected, a category that remains aloof from convention, the highest category. Huang explained: The unaffected category is the most difficult to grasp. It clumsily draws squares and circles, and looks down on minute use of colors. The brushwork is simple but the forms complete, and they are obtained naturally. It cannot be imitated because it is intentional, and one who sees it will exclaim it: an unaffected work.

Ink Paintings: Existence and Transcendence

  As the inheritor of traditional art, there is another important aspect of the tradition that Jizi discerningly discovered: the connotations of the transcendental spirit that permeates the ideas of Chinas traditional literati paintings. As we all know, using a text to carry the Tao, and using a painting to reveal the Tao are the highest realms to which Chinas ink paintings have always aspired. Early in the creation of landscape painting in the period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties (220-589), the scholar and artist Zong Bing (375-443) expounded his ideas that landscape painting uses shapes to entice the Tao; landscape painting reaches the joy of benevolence (ren) and wisdom (zhi), and frees the spirit. Zong Bing also said: Only when one purifies his mind can one glimpse the Tao, and then (by means of looking at landscape paintings) one can travel even when confined. Zong Bings contemporary, Wang Wei, also advocated using a brush to imitate the substance of the Tao.

  本文旨在阐释姬子的艺术探索与实践,对其艺术历程及艺术主张进行分析,从继承中国水墨传统、借鉴西方绘画、超越绘画的渐进层次和墨道山水的阐释四个方面述评姬子的艺术实践,以期探讨墨道山水艺术的意义和可能性。

  The purpose of this essay is to interpret the explorations and practices of Jizis art, to analyze the processes and ideas in his art, and to comment on Jizis artistic practices by clarifying the following four aspects: what Jizi inherited from traditional Chinese ink painting, what he learned from western paintings, how he gradually transcended these paintings, and how he created the Tao of Ink Landscapes, with a view to exploring the significance and possibilities of the Tao of Ink Landscapes

  在继承传统方面的另一个重要问题是他敏锐地发现中国传统文人画思想中所具有的超越性精神内涵。大家知道,如同文以载道那样,以画体道一直是中国水墨画所追求的最高境界,早在山水画创始的南北朝时代,宗炳便论述了山水以形媚道,以达仁智之乐而畅神的思想,宗炳说:唯当澄怀观道,卧以游之。与宗炳同时代的王微也提出以一管之笔拟太虚之体的主张。唐代张彦远在论书画用笔时也讲道:守其神,专其一,合造化之功,假吴生之笔、凡事之臻妙者皆如是乎,岂止画也,与乎庖丁发轫,□匠运斤。到清代石涛更在其《画语录》中详细地阐述了寄兴于笔墨,假道与山川的思想。石涛以一画论展开论述,最后总结道:此任者,诚蒙养生传之理,以一治万,以万治一,不任于山,不任于水,不任于笔墨,不任于古今,不任于圣人,是任者,是有其资也。其在《画谱》中还强调指出:一画者,无极也,天地之道也。以画体道的思想在石涛的画论中得到了充分的体现,成为传统文人画精神本质的经典性总结。

  姬子先生的作品主要是墨道山水作品,既追求新颖别致的构成形式,又努力达到引人沉思的超然境界。

  The literati painting style integrated poetry, calligraphy, painting, and seal carving. From the simple, light paintings of Ni Yunlin (1301-1374) to the splashes of Xu Tingteng (1521-1593), the brilliance of the Tang and Northern Song periods gradually faded, and the original but not quite fully matured rules for realism in modeling gradually lost the conditions necessary for their in-depth development. This made the insufficiency of the rational spirit in Chinas traditional literati paintings a defect that became even more pronounced after the influential Yuan Dynasty painter and calligrapher Zhao Mengfu (1254-1322) declared: What we value in painting is the old conception. If there is no old conception, even if the painting is skillful, it has no value, and this led to the common practice of literati painters esteeming the old. The Ming Dynasty painter and scholar, Dong Qichangs (1555-1636) famous remark about reading thousands of books and traveling thousands of miles was actually taken to mean just viewing thousands of old paintings. Right up until the first four emperors of the Qing dynasty, imitating the ancients was held in high esteem, causing literati painters to become even further removed from naturalness, and to come to the end of their road. Accordingly, when the Qing painter Shi Tao (1642-1707) advocated for nature oriented painting, the emergence of the type of artistic thinking that produced Shi Taos masterpiece Searching Among the Peaks (painted in 1691), shook the world of Chinese painting like an earthquake.

  Synopsis:

  姬子先生早年曾多方面地致力于传统山水画的学习,一方面他继承了传统文人画的长处,不仅认真地学习董巨派苍润的笔墨技法,体会诗化的意境表现,还努力学习书法篆刻;另一方面,出于个性气质的偏爱,他更侧重于北宋全景山水的大格局大气势,更喜欢黄公望、王蒙茂密苍茫的格调。他不主张逸笔草草和即兴挥毫泼洒,更不主张潦潦数笔画,题满篇文字,这无疑是一种初步萌发的绘画独立的精品意识。经过五六年的刻苦努力,到六四年创作《孟浩然过故人庄图》时已很突出地表现出其在继承传统山水画方面的取舍特征与扎实功底了。

  Author: Yu Fan

  If we examine Jizis journey as an artist, his inherent relationship with Chinas classical tradition of painting is: first, Jizi chose a magnificent, bold style and then promoted the rational factors in traditional painting. Jizi learned to express a poeticized realm in his paintings, and sought to express lyricism. Out of respect for stele calligraphy, Jizi diligently practiced this calligraphy with brush and ink. Finally, Jizi carried forward traditional paintings development of purifying the mind to glimpse the Tao, and the spiritual meaning of using painting to realize the Tao; and concluded with explorations that resulted in the unique appearance of his Tao of Ink Landscapes.

  After several decades of practicing art, Mr. Jizi forged his own independent thinking, and did a nuanced analysis of intellectual artistic qualities. From his own personal realization, Jizi gained a penetrating grasp of the transcendental spirit of purifying the mind to glimpse the Tao, and using painting to reveal the Tao. Jizi followed the aesthetic objective of using a brush that spotlights and captures an image to paint a painting cherished by all. Jizis relentless pursuit of artistic exploration was the foundation for his art form the Tao of Ink Landscapes, and also the basis for his internal thinking about his own line of succession to traditional art.

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